Maithili

Maithili Literature

The main characteristics of Magadhi Prakrit is to corrupt ‘r’ into ‘s’, the ‘n’ for n, of ‘j’ for ‘y’, of ‘b’ for ‘y’ In the edicts of Ashoka the change of ‘r’ to ‘h’ is established. Mahavir and Buddha delivered their sermons in the eastern languages.The secular use of language came mainly from the east as will be evident from the Prakritpainglam, a comprehensive work on Prakrit and Apabhramsa-Avahatta poetry. Jyotirishwar mentions Lorika. Vachaspati II in his Tattvachintamani and Vidyapati in his Danavakyavali have profusely used typical Maithili words of daily use. The Maithili script, Mithilakshara or Tirhuta as it is popularly known, is of a great antiquity.. The Lalitavistara mentions the Vaidehi script. Early in the latter half of the seventh century A. D., we find a marked change in the north-eastern alphabet and the inscriptions of Adityasena exhibit this change for the first time and hence forward the eastern variety develops by itself and becomes the Maithili script—a script which ultimately comes into use in Assam, Bengal and Nepal.The earliest recorded epigraphic evidence of the script is to be found in the Mandar Hill Stone inscriptions of Adityasena (c. 7th century A. D.), now fixed in the Baidyanath temple, Deoghar.

The Kamrupa dialect was originally a variety of eastern Maithili and it was, no doubt, the spoken Aryan language throughout the kingdom which then included the whole of Assam valley and whole of North Bengal with the addition of the district of Purnea. The language of the Buddhist Dohas is described as belonging to the mixed Maithili—Kamrupi language.

Early Maithili Literature (C. 700-1350 A.D.)-The period was of ballads, songs, and dohas. Some important Maithili writers of of this era were:

  • Sarahapad (700 AD-780 AD)
  • Jyotirishwar Thakur (1290 to 1350) whose ‘Varnartnakar’ is a the first prose and encyclopedia in any north Indian language;
  • Umapati
  • Shankaradatta

Middle Maithili Literature (C. 1350-1830 A.D.)-The period was of theatrical writings. Some important Maithili writers of of this era were:

  • Vidyapati (1350 to 1450)
  • Srimanta Sankardeva (1449 to 1568)
  • Govindadas
  • Vishnupuri
  • Kamsanarayan
  • Mahesh Thakur
  • Karn Jayanand
  • Kanharamadas
  • Nandipati
  • Lalkavi
  • Manabodha
  • Sahebramadas
  • Buddhilal
  • Ratnapani

Modern Maithili Literature (1830 A.D. to date)

Modern Maithili came into its own after Sir George Abraham Grierson, an Irish linguist and civil servant, tirelessly researched Maithili folklore and transcribed its grammar. Paul R. Brass wrote that “Grierson judged that Maithili and its dialects could fairly be characterized as the language of the entire population of Darbhanga and Bhagalpur districts and of a majority or a significant minority of the populations of Muzaffarpur, Monghyer, Purnia and Santhal Parganas.” In April 2010 a translation of the New Testament into Maithili was published by the Bible Society of India under joint copyright with Wycliffe Bible Translators.

The development of Maithili in modern era was due to various magazines and journals. Some notable journals, which led to the resurgence in moderm writing, are Maithil Hit Sadhana (Jaipur,1905), Mithila Moda (Varanasi,1905), Mithila Mihir(Darbhanga and Patna—), ShriMaithili (Laheriasarai—), Mithila (Laheriasarai—), Maithila Bandhu (Ajmer—), Bharati (Laheriasarai—), Bibhuti (Muzaffarpur—) Sahitya Patra (Darbhanga—)Vaidehi (Kasi-) (Sitamarhi—)(Darbhanga—), Satyasandesha (Kasi—), Swadesha(Darbhanga—), Maithila Jyoti (Patna—), Mithilascvaka (Calcutta—), Mithila Darshan (again Maithili Darsana and now again Mithila Darshan)(Calcutta—), Chaupadi (Patna—), Mithila (Darbhanga—), Pallava (Nehra), Abhivyanjana (Patna,Saharsa), Dainik Swadesha (Darbhanga), Sanjiwani (Laheriasarai), Akhar (Calcutta), Mithilabani (Darbhanga—), Mithila Mitra (Sultanganj), Tatka (Jamshedpur), Batuk (Allahabad), Dhiyaputa (Lohna), Sishu (Darbhanga), Ijot (Darbhanga), Janak (Darbhanga)Nirman (Laheriasarai) Matribani (Tharhi)Matribani (Darbhanga)Nutan Vishwa (Laheriasarai), Maithili Samachar (Allahabad), Mithila Amar(Aligarh), Mithila Doot (Kanpur), Mithili Alok (Ferozabad), Sonamatl (Patna), Swadeshvani (Deoghar), Anama (Patna), Sannipata (Patna), Maithili (Biratnagar), Foolpat (Kathmandu), Agnipatra (Calcutta), Maithili Prakash (Calcutta), Mithila Bharati (Patna), Apan Desha (Laheriasarai), Mithila Bhumi (Latheriasari), Mithila Times (Darbhanga), Changur (Saharsa), Sakti Bhumi Maithili Kavita (Calcutta), Ego Rahathi Raja Lai Dhuan (Shivanagar), Bhumhar (Laheriasarai), Shikha (Calcutta), Mahur Darbhanga), LokemanchFarak (Patna), Karnamrit (Calcutta), Desil Bayana (Calcutta), Desh kosh (Calcutta), Aarumbha (Patna) ,Matipani (Patna), Videha ejournal, Videha-Sadeha (Delhi), Antika (Ghaziabad), Mithila srijan (Madhubani), Samay saal (Patna), Ghar Bahar (Patna), Vidyapati Times (Darbhanga), Gamghar (Janakpur), Purvottar Maithil(Guwahati, Assam, by Satyanand pathak), Purvottar Maithil samaj(Guwahati, Assam), Hilkor (Khagaria), Dachhin Mithila (Begusarai), Maithili Sandesh(Ranchi,1994).

Some important writers of this era are:

  • Chanda Jha (1831–1907)
  • Lal Das (1856–1921)
  • MM Parmeshwar Jha (1856–1924)
  • Munshi Raghunandan Das (1860–1945)
  • Rasbihari Lal Das (1872–1940)
  • Dinbandhu Jha (1878–1955)
  • Pt. Ramji Chaudhary (1878–1952)
  • Acharya Ramlochan Saran (1889–1971)
  • Sitaram Jha (1891–1975)
  • Badrinath Jha (1893–1973)
  • Babu Dhanushdhari Lal Das (1895–1965)
  • Bhola Lal Das (1897–1977)
  • Kumar Ganganand Singh (1898–1971)
  • Damodar Lal Das Visharad (1904–1981)
  • Babuaji Jha “Agyat” (1904–1996)
  • Ramanath Jha (1906–1971)
  • Kashikant Mishra “Madhup” (1906–1987)
  • Kanchinath Jha ‘Kiran'(1906–1988)
  • Isnath Jha(1907–1965)
  • Bhuvneshwar Singh “Bhuwan”(1907–1944)
  • Hari Mohan Jha (1908–1984) published the collection Khattar kaka
  • Subhadra Jha(1909–2000)
  • Snehlata(1909–1993)
  • Tantranath Jha(1909–1984)
  • Surendra Jha ‘Suman’ (1910–2002) represented Maithili in the Sahitya Akademi
  • Baidyanath Mishra ‘Yatri’ (June 30, 1911 – November 4, 1998) wrote Hindi as Nagarjun, was conferred Sahitya Akademi, Delhi Fellowship (India’s top literary honour) as a Hindi and Maithili Poet in 1994
  • Arsi Prasad Singh(1911–1996)
  • Vaidyanath Mallik “Vidhu”(1912–1987)
  • Upendra Thakur “Mohan(1913-1980)
  • Ramcharitra Pandey “Anu”(1917–2010)
  • Upendra Nath Jha “Vyas” (1917–2002), an engineer by profession, “Doo Patra”, his most famous work, exhibited the goods and the evils of the Maithili society.
  • Manmohan Jha(1918–2009)
  • Brajkishor Varma “Manipadm”(1918–1986)
  • Budhidhari Singh “Ramakar”(1919–1991)
  • Radha Krishna Choudhary (1921–1985)
  • Sudhanshu Shekhar Chaudhari (1922–1990)
  • Jaykant Mishra (20.12.1922 – 3.2.2009) represented Maithili in the Sahitya Akademi
  • Chandrabhanu Singh(1922- )
  • Govind Jha(1923- )
  • Yoganand Jha(1923–1986)
  • Ramkrishna Jha “Kishun”(1923–1970)
  • Umanath Jha(1923–2009)
  • Prabodh Narayan Singh(1924–2005)
  • Anima Singh(1924- )
  • Jayamant Mishra (15.10.1925 – 7.9.2010)
  • Chandranath Mishra “Amar” (1925- )was conferred Sahitya Akademi, Delhi’s Fellowship (India’s top literary honour) as a Maithili writer in 2010
  • Anant Bihari Lal das “Indu”(1928–2010)
  • Rajkamal Chaudhary (1929–1967)
  • Durganath Jha “Sreesh(1929- )
  • Shailendra Mohan Jha(1929-1994)
  • Gopaljee Jha “Gopesh” (1931–2008)
  • Lalit(1932–1983)
  • Dhoomketu(1932–2000)
  • Lili Rey(1933- )
  • Kalikant Jha “Buch” (1934–2009)
  • Rajmohan Jha(1934- )
  • Dr. Dhirendra(1934–2004)
  • Mayanand Mishra(1934- )
  • Somdev(1934- )
  • Ramanand Renu(1934- )
  • Rambhadra(1935- )
  • Kedarnath Chaudhary(1936- )
  • Jeevkant(1936- )
  • Balram(1936–2008)
  • Ramdev Jha(1936- )
  • Binod Bihari Verma (1937–2003)
  • Birendra Mallik(1937- )
  • Kirtinarayan Mishra(1937- )
  • Praphulla Kumar Singh “Maun”(1938- )
  • Kulanand Mishra(1940–2000)
  • Bilat Paswan “Vihangam”(1940- )
  • Fazlur Rahman “Hashmi”(1940- )
  • Saketanand(1940- )
  • Prabhas Kumar Chaudhary(1941–1998)
  • Gangesh Gunjan(1942- )
  • Premshankar Singh(1942- )
  • Markandey Pravasi(1942–2010)
  • Shanti Suman(1942- )
  • Upendra Doshi(1943–2001)
  • Uday Chandra Jha “Vinod”(1943- )
  • Revati Raman Lal(1943- )
  • Mohan Bhardvaj(1943- )
  • Shefalika Varma(1943- )
  • Mantreshwar Jha(1944- )
  • Bhimnath Jha(1945- )
  • Prabhavati Jha(1945–1999)
  • Ilarani Singh(1945–1993)
  • Ushakiran Khan(1945- )
  • Nirja Renu(1945- )
  • Mahendra Malangia(1946- )
  • Veena Karn(1946- )
  • Mahaprakash(1946- )
  • Jagdish Prasad Mandal (1947 – )
  • Subhash Chandra Yadav(1948- )
  • Siyaram Jha Saras(1948- )
  • Agnipushp(1948- )
  • Ramanand Jha “Raman”(1949- )
  • Ramlochan Thakur(1949- )
  • Vidyanath Jha “Vidit”
  • Naresh Kumar Vikal(1950- )
  • Harekrishna Jha(1950- )
  • Sukant Som (1950- )
  • Udaya Narayana singh “Nachiketa”(1951- )
  • Rambharos Kapari Bhramar(1951- )
  • Kunal(1951- )
  • Shailendra Kumar Jha(1952- )
  • Shivshankar Sriniwas(1953- )
  • Ashok(1953- )
  • Vibhuti Anand(1953- )
  • Kamla Chaudhary(1953- )
  • Laxman Jha Sagar(1953- )
  • Arvind Thakur(1954- )
  • Shyam Darihare(1954- )
  • Yoganand Jha(1955- )
  • Narayanji(1956- )
  • Kumar Pawan(1958- )
  • Maneshwar Manuj(1958- )
  • Vibha Rani(1959- )
  • Kedar Kanan(1959- )
  • Ramesh(1961- )
  • Meghan Prasad(1961- )
  • Satyanand pathak(1961- )
  • Susmita Pathak(1962- )
  • Devshankar Navin(1962- )
  • Jyotsna Chandram(1963- )
  • Pradip Bihari(1963- )
  • Vidyanand Jha(1965- )
  • Taranand Viyogi(1966- )
  • Ramesh Ranjan(1966- )
  • Dhirendra Premarshi(1967- )
  • Sunil Kumar Mallick (1968- )
  • Krishna Mohan Jha(1968- )
  • Analkant(1969- )
  • Daman Kumar Jha(1969- )
  • Anmol Jha(1970- )
  • Gajendra Thakur (1971 – )
  • Munnaji (1971- )
  • Shiv Kumar Jha(1973- )
  • Sri Dharam(1974- )
  • Anand Kumar Jha(1977- )
  • Vinit Utpal(1978- )
  • Umesh Mandal(1980- )
  • Amarendra Yadav
  • Shankardeo Jha
  • Roshan Janakpuri
  • Rajdeo Mandal
  • Bechan Thakur
  • Ashish Anchinhar
  • Rupesh Kumar Jha ‘Teoth’
  • Durganand Mandal
  • Rabi Bhushan Pathak
  • Jyoti Sunit Chaudhary

Kavishwar Chanda Jha was famous as “Kavichandra”, he wrote Ramayan in Maithili (Mithila bhasha Ramayan), Geeti Sudha, Maheshvani Samgraha,Chandra Padavali,Laxmishwar Vilas,Ahilya Charit and he translated from Samskrit into Maithili the Purush ParikSha of Vidyapati. Mahakavi Laldas wrote Rameshwar Charit Ramayan, strishiksha,savitri satyavan, chandi charit and virudavali.

Some other modern Maithili writers and their works are: Dhirendra (Bhorukba, Kado Aa Koila), Sudhansu Sekhar Chaudhary (Tarpatta upper Patta, E Bataha Sansar), Somadeva (Hotel Anarkali/Chano Dai), Manipadma (Vidyapati, Ardhanariswara, Raja Salhesa, Lorika Vijaya, Naika-Banjara, winner of Akademy award, Dulara Dayal, Kobra Girl, Kanki, Analapatha), Prabhas Kumar Choudhary (Abhispta/ Yugapurusha/ Hamara Lag Rahab), Jivakant (Du Kuhesa Ka Bat, Panipata, Aginaban, Piar Gulab Chhal, Nahi, Katahu Nahi), Ramanand Renu (Dudh-Phool ) , Lalit (Prithviputra), Raj Kamal (Andolana), Mayanand Mishra (Khota Aa Chirai), Shashikant (Girahkatta, Akasadeepa), Trilokanath Mishra (Ranjana), Bindeshwar Mandal (Bat Ka Bhent, Jindagi Ka Genth), Gangesa Gunjan (Appana Loka), Gauri Mishra (Chingi), Laliteshwar Mallik (Dain), Gajendra Thakur (Sahasrabadhani, Sahasrashirsha, Sahasrabdik Chaupar Par, Tvanchahanch, Asanjati Man,Sankarshan), Jagdish Prasad Mandal (Gamak Jingi), Kalikant Jha Buch (Kalanidhi), RasBihari Lal das (Sumati), Nachiketa (No etrt :maa pravish, pratyavartan), Bechan Thakur (Betik Apman aa Chhinardevi), Umesh Mandal (Nistuki), Shankardeo Jha (Sandhi samas), Ravi Bhushan Pathak (Rehearshal), Shiv Kumar Jha (Anshu, Kshanprabha), Preeti Thakur (Gonu Jha aa aan Maithili Chitrakatha), Devanshu Vatsha (Natasha), Subhash Chandra Yadava (Ghardekhia, Banait-Bigrait), Kedarnath Chaudhary (Chamelirani), Dhoomketu (Mor par), Saketanand (Sarvashvant),Vibha Rani (Bhagrau aa Balchanda), Taranand viyogi (Tumi chir sarathi, Karmdharay, Pralaya Rahasya), Narendra Jha (Vikas o Arthatantra), Panna Jha (Anubhuti), Vinit Utpal (Ham Puchhait Chhi), Jyoti Sunit Chaudhary (Archis), Nagendra Kumar (Sasarphani), Prabodh Narayan Singh (Hathik daant), Gopalji Jha Gopesh (Makhanak paat, Gumma Bhel tharh chhi), DeoShankar navin (Aadhunik Sahityak Paridrishya),Satyanand Pathak (Hamar Gaam), Madaneshwar Mishra (Ek Chhalih Maharani), Brikhesh Chandra Lal (Malha).

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maithili_language

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