In the Brihad Vishnu Puran under the heading of the Mithila Mahatmya in the Second Chapter, Shloka 20-21 it has been said:
“Mithila Tairbhuhischa Vaidehi Naimikananm
Jnankhestra Kripapitha Swarn Langal Paddhatiah.
Janaki Janmbhumischa Nitpeksha Vikalmasha
Ramanandkari Vishvabhavini Nityamangala.”
Meaning thereby Mithila. Tirbhukti, Vaidehi, Naimikanan, Jnanshila, Kripapeetha, Swarn Langal Paddhati, Janaki Janmbhumi, Vikalmasha, Ramanandkari, Vishvabhavini and Nityamangala are 12 names of Mithila.
“Antarvahyascha Sarvatra madhyante Ripavah sada
Mithilanam Sajneya Janakasch kritamahi.
Makaro Vishwakarta cha Thakarsthitipalakah
Lakaro laykarta vai trimara Shaktyobhavan.”
(Inside and outside, who churn out enemies always Mithila be understood that where Janaks were ruling the land.
‘Mi’s Makar signifies Founder of the world and ‘Thi’s Thakar signifies Who looks after ‘La’s Lakar signifies the Destroyer and Trimatra is for the Power.”
After 71 Chatryugi one Indra comes to throne who reins 3,67,20,000 human years. He is called Manu and Manwatar is the time frame. Such 14 Indras are coming to throne.
Those live very long are called CHIRANJIVI. At the present moment there are 8 CHIRANJIVIS i.e. Ashwatthama, Bali,Vyasa, Hanuman, Bibhishan, Kripacharya, Parshuram and Markandeya.
During the 24th Chaturyugi Brahma asked Vashstha to go to Mrityubhuvan for becoming priest of Suryavanshi Kings. Vashishtha protested that Purohiti is prohibited profession. Then Brahma said that Lord Vishnu Himself would take birth at that Suryavanshi kings in Tretayug. Vashistha then said that he would go but wanted one correction.
Brahma asked what correction?
Vashishtha said,”You say Ramavatar will be in Treta. Now Satyayug is going on, then Dwapar will come and then Treta will come. I cannot live for so long in Mrtyubhuvan as: Satyayuga is of 1,72,800 years. Dwapar is of 12,96,000 years. Treta is of 8,64,000 years, and Kaliya is of 4,32,000 years. If you make treat after Satyayug, I may go.”
Brahma accepted that and since then Treta is coming after Satyayuga. Before that 24 times Satyayuga was follwed by Dwapar and then Treta. On the acceptance by Brahma, Vashishtha came to Mrityubhuvan and became priest of Suryavanshis.
Who were Suryavansis?
The son of Sun was Manu who had four sons- 1. Ang, 2. Bang, 3. Nimiya and 4. Awadh on whose names were named Angdesh, Bangdesh, Nepaldesh and Awadh.
After Satyayug, came Tretayug when Ram was born but how he could marry Sita of his own Gotra and Dynasty and hence, Brahma had to make a way.
One day Brahma distracted mind of Nimiya who requested Vashishtha to have a Yajna so that he could reach Swarag with the body as Kaliyag’s time cycle had been only 5,087 years. Vashistha replied,”OK”, and he went his home. Nimaya started arrangements for Yajna. Seers were invited. All except Vashshtha was present on due time. A messanger was sent for him.
Vashishtha became angry and said he had committed Indra before him for the Yajna and hence he was going to Indra.
Knowing that Nimaya was in deep grief and proclaimed for the cancellation of Yajna. But all seers said that in the absence of Vashishtha, the yajna be held with appointing Gautam as Acharya.
Gautam started yajna. That time kings had the Gotra of Gurus and so now Nimiya;s Gotra was changed to Gautam from Vshistha and yajna sankalpa was for 500 years.
When Vashishtha returned from Indra’s place, his son Shaktiji informed him the matter. Vashishtha reached Nimiy’s place and both had hot talks. Vashishtha taking water in his hands gave curse, “Sadyah Videho Bhava”.
Nimiya also cursed him. With the curse of Vashishtha Nimiya died. With the curse of Nimiya Vashishtha reached Varun’s place seeking life by “Parkaya Pravesh”.
Varun listening to his prayer gave place to Vashishtha’s soul in his heart and since then was known as Mitravarun.
Once, Mitravarun had sperm fall seing the numph Urvashi. That sperm was kept in a Ghat. Agastya was born to that and hece he is called Ghat-Yoni utpanna.
Some sperm fell on the Lotus leaf from which Vashishtha was born who is called a Veshyaputra.
After the death of Nimiya, he was asked to remain as hair above the eyes (Eye-brows- the NIMI) seers churned out a son (Mathi Kaya) of his dead body who was hence, called MITHI.
Mithi established a good capital, which was named on him as MITHILAPURI.
Being born of the body of father he took title of JANAK. Since that day whoever be the king was called JANAK. Father of Sita was 21st JANAK. He was named Kushadhwaj.
In that Nimi’s yajna 19 seers came from the different parts of the country who settled down in Mithila whose sons are called from that Gotra.
Due to change of Gotra and body Ram’s marriage could be held with Sita.
According to Panini, where enemies were eradicated out that country was called Mithila. The people there had been with valor.
Siradhwaj Janak under whose time Jagdamba Janki took reincarnation had defeated the King of Sakanshya.
There had been 57 kings in the dynasty of Videh Janak. People use to long-lived in those days.
By the time of DWAPAR that kingdom was weakened and was divided in the East and West Mithila. Hence, Western Mithila (Tirhut) accepted the ascend of Hastinapur and had sided with Kauravas during Mahabharata but Eastern Mithila (MATSYA JANPADA)’s King Virat had sided with the Pandavas. Viratnagar was his capital where Pandavas spent secretly their period of their AJNATVAS.
The last King of Janak Dynasty was of bad character, hence, the public under the leadership of Acharyas dethroned him and Mithila remained Kingless for hundreds of years for want of a suitable person. In fact, Mithila was the first democracy of the world, which worked on the basis of a Panchayati system under the guidance of Acharyas. People were disciplined afraid of Dharmadand. It was said:
“Na Raja Na Cha Rajyasit, Na Dandyo Na Cha Dandika
Dharme naiv praja saevaih Rakshantim parasparam.”
Meaning thereby there was neither king, nor punishment nor punishment giver- the subjects were disciplined by the fear of Dharmdanda and were safe.
Including Vaishali in whole of the Mithila such state continued for long. Then outsiders started attacking. It was not difficult to defeat the simpletons of Mithila and Vajjisangh, Lichhavis, Shaishunag, Nand Dynasty, Shung Dynasty, Kant Dynasty, Gupta Dynasty, Vardhan Dynasty etc. ruled there from time to time.
In the same time period (5th-6th century) – Jaywardhan Raja Salhesh became who made his capital at Mahisautha-Sirha (presently in Nepal which was then limited to the Kathmandu valley and nearby hilly terrains).
Tibetans had attacked on Mithila several times which was successfully defended by King Salhesh. Hence, he was called Shailesh (king of Mountains) from Jaywardhan which in local dialect was called Salhesh. His valor could make whole north-eastern India safe.
By: Dr. Kamal Kant Jha, Pt. Sri ganeshrai Vidyabhushan, Dr. Dhanakar Thakur