Mithila is the name of the land situated between 25028’ and 26052’ N latitude and between 84056’ and 86046’ E bounded on the north by the Himalayas (Nepal) on the east by the Mahananda (the river Kosi has shifted 130km west) on the south by the river Ganga and on west by the river Gandaki (earlier known as Sadanira).
From the foot hills of the Himalayas in the north to the Ganga in the south it stretches for more than 170 km and from the Mahananda in the east to the river Gandaki in the west, it stretches to 425 km. It is remarkable that it has rivers on three sides and the Himalayas on one.
The soil of Mithila is very fertile. It is very suitable for horticulture, especially for the cultivation of mango, lichi, banana, sugar cane and many fruits and flowers. Through proper management of water, fish, makhana and singhara can be produced abundantly. Until recently fish form this area was exported to several parts of the country, but now the fish market of Mithila is inundated with fish from Andhra Pradesh. Makhana a rare commodity in the whole world grows in Mithila. According to scientists makhana is tremendously rich in protein, but there is no proper arrangement for its production.
The supply of water due to rains differs in different parts of Mithila, the average annual rainfall varies from 1202 mm to 1443 mm. The depth at which underground water is found also differs in different areas due to the structural differences in the soil.
Prominent Rivers of Mithila
Ganga, Mahananda, Koshi, Bagmati, Gandak, Burhi Gandak, Kamla, Kareh and Lakhandei.
There is some more rivers such as Narayani, Trijuga, Balan, Kalikashi, SunaKosi, DughdaKosi, IndrawatiKosi, LaghuKosi etc.
There are more than fifty rivers in the whole of Mithila region. Sixty to seventy thousands tanks and around four thousand Chaurs (wet land) are spread over the region. These vast resources of water have not been tapped for irrigation purposes till date.
Boundry of Mithila
In north its surrounded by Terai of Nepal, in south by The Ganges, east with Kosi And Mahananda Rivers while in west Gandak (Sadanira) River flows.
From North To South (Approx. 170 K.M.)
From East To West (Approx. 425 K.M.)
Lying between Latitudes 250 28′ and 260 52′ N and Longitudes 840 56′ and 860 46′ E.
Mithila is bounded on the north by the terai of Nepal which is linguistically, geographically and culturally just like Mithila and on the east, south and west by the Rivers Kosi/Mahananda, Ganga and the Gandak respectively.
District Wise Area of Mithila
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* Note: At present Nawagachia is a subdivision of Bhagalpur. It is situated to north of the Ganga and therefore this region is part of Mithila as far as land, language and ethics are concerned.